Museo Galileo
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Virtual Museum
Section of Room VI
 Measurement, Drawing and Calculation

The instruments of the commander educated in the mathematical sciences were often kept in cases and boxes. Magnetic compasses, quadrants, squares, rulers, drawing pens and, above all, compasses of various kinds formed the armamentarium of the military cartographer. The term "compasses" includes a broad array of instruments for drawing, measurement, and proportional calculation. In the late 16th century, the latter function was served to perfection by Galileo's geometric and military compasses.

Objects
"Archimetro"

"Archimetro"

Inv. 629
Maker unknown, 17th cent.

Barrois compass

Barrois compass

Inv. 656
Franz Schwartz, Brussels, first half 18th cent.

Box for mathematical instruments

Box for mathematical instruments

Inv. 677
Maker unknown, 18th cent.

Box for mathematical instruments

Box for mathematical instruments

Inv. 597
Maker unknown, 18th cent.

Box for mathematical instruments

Box for mathematical instruments

Inv. 672
Maker unknown, 17th cent.

Box for mathematical instruments

Box for mathematical instruments

Inv. 671
Maker unknown, 17th cent.

Box of mathematical instruments

Box of mathematical instruments

Inv. 243, 244, 247
Giacomo Lusverg, Domenico Lusverg, Rome, second half 17th cent. - first half 18th cent.

Caliper compass

Caliper compass

Inv. 3693
Peugeot Frères, French, 19th cent.

Case of mathematical instruments

Case of mathematical instruments

Inv. 639, 640, 673, 703
Giacomo Lusverg, Domenico Lusverg, Rome, late 17th cent. - early 18th cent.

Compass known as Michelangelo's compass

Compass known as Michelangelo's compass

Inv. 1357
Maker unknown, Italian, 16th cent.

Dividers

Dividers

Inv. 1000
Maker unknown, 17th cent.

Dividers

Dividers

Inv. 1486/bis
Maker unknown, 17th cent.

Drawing compass

Drawing compass

Inv. 3684
Maker unknown, 17th cent.

Folding rule

Folding rule

Inv. 628
Antoine La Motte, Rome, 1768

Folding rule

Folding rule

Inv. 2511
Antonio Bianchini, Italian, 16th cent.

Folding square

Folding square

Inv. 3629
F. Rousselot, Paris, 18th cent.

Four-point proportional compasses

Four-point proportional compasses

Inv. 3567
Giovanni Maccari, Rome, 1666

Geometric and military compass

Geometric and military compass

Inv. 3540
Giovanni Maccari, Italian, 1676

Graduated ruler

Graduated ruler

Inv. 638, 3703
Maker unknown, Urbino, 1661

Gunner's calliper

Gunner's calliper

Inv. 3176
Lorenzo Batecin, Venice, 16th cent.

Military compass

Military compass

Inv. 3692
Maker unknown, French, 18th cent.

"Organum Mathematicum"

"Organum Mathematicum"

Inv. 2741
Maker unknown, Italian, late 17th cent. - early 18th cent.

Organum mathematicum libris IX…, Gaspar Schott (facsimile)

Organum mathematicum libris IX…, Gaspar Schott (facsimile)

Firenze, Museo Galileo, MED 0791
Gaspar Schott, Herbipoli [Würzburg], original 1668 / facsimile 2010

Pantograph

Pantograph

Inv. 596
Joseph Meinicke, Vienna, 18th cent.

Plumb level

Plumb level

Inv. 3604
Maker unknown, 17th cent.

Plumb level

Plumb level

Inv. 654
Maker unknown, 17th cent.

Plumb level (gunner's level) and proportional compasses

Plumb level (gunner's level) and proportional compasses

Inv. 3695
Pierre Galland, 18th cent.

Portrait of Nikolaus Kratzer

Portrait of Nikolaus Kratzer

Inv. 3566
Author unknown, date unknown (20th cent. copy from Holbein)

Proportional compasses

Proportional compasses

Dep. GN, Roma
Antonio Costa, Italian, 17th cent.

Proportional compasses

Proportional compasses

Inv. 2512
Jost Miller, Strasbourg, 1616

Proportional compasses

Proportional compasses

Inv. 3647
Jacques Canivet, Paris, 18th cent.

Proportional compasses

Proportional compasses

Inv. 3676
Pierre Le Maire, Paris, 18th cent.

Proportional compasses

Proportional compasses

Inv. 650
Maker unknown, 17th cent.

Reduction compass

Reduction compass

Inv. 688
Agostino Rastrelli, Florence, 1719

Reduction compass

Reduction compass

Inv. 633
Maker unknown, 17th cent.

Reduction compass

Reduction compass

Inv. 3686
Maker unknown, 17th cent.

Ruler

Ruler

Inv. 1322, 3683
Maker unknown, 17th cent.

Surveying compass

Surveying compass

Inv. 1280
Maker unknown, 17th cent.

Surveying compass

Surveying compass

Inv. 3687
Maker unknown, 17th cent.

Surveying compass

Surveying compass

Inv. 1471
Maker unknown, Italian, 17th cent.

Trattato di diuersi istrumenti matematici…, Antonio Santucci (facsimile)

Trattato di diuersi istrumenti matematici…, Antonio Santucci (facsimile)

Firenze, Biblioteca Marucelliana, Ms. C 82, cc. 44v-45r
Antonio Santucci, original 1593-1594 / facsimile 2008

Triangulation compass

Triangulation compass

Inv. 645
Joost Bürgi, Prague?, ca. 1604

Triangulation instrument

Triangulation instrument

Inv. 668
Paolo Massucci, Lucca, 1604