Cosimo I was the son of Giovanni delle Bande Nere (1498-1526). He was created Duke of Florence in 1537, and Grand Duke of Tuscany in 1569. The botanical gardens of Pisa (1544) and Florence (1545) were both founded under his rule. He was the author of cosmographic studies and asked the monk Egnazio Danti (1536-1586) to produce geographic maps of all territories then known. The collection of scientific wonders begun by Cosimo I forms the original nucleus of the Medici collection, now preserved on the first floor of the Museo Galileo of Florence.