A painter and architect born in Urbino, Raphael (Raffaello Sanzio) was one of the greatest artists of the Renaissance. Initiated into painting by his father, Giovanni Santi, Raphael was already in Perugia before 1499 in the workshop of Pietro Vannucci (c. 1450-1523), known as Il Perugino. A decisive period in his training was his stay in Florence (1504-1508), where he encountered the works of Leonardo (1452-1519) and Michelangelo (1475-1564). In Florence, he developed his esthetic canon, based on a classical ideal of beauty and formal perfection. In 1508, he moved definitively to Rome, where he had been commissioned by Julius II (1443-1513, Pope from 1503) to paint frescoes in several rooms of the Vatican Palace, such as the Stanza della Segnatura and the Stanza di Eliodoro. The portrait of Leo X (1475-1521, Pope from 1513) - regarded by critics as one of his masterpieces - dates from the Roman period.